The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 190 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news, and opinions. According to Internet Live Stats, as of December 30, 2014, there was an estimated 3,037,608,300 Internet users worldwide. The number of Internet users represents nearly 40 percent of the world’s population. The largest number of Internet users by country is China, followed by the United States and India.
In September 2014, the total number of websites with a unique hostname online exceeded 1 billion. This is an increase from one website (info.cern.ch) in 1991.
No one owns the Internet, and there is not an organization who controls the internet. It relies on a physical infrastructure that connects networks to other networks.
What are www and the internet?
The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web. The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. The World Wide Web, or simply The Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet.
What is URL (Uniform resource locator)?
Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator (URL) it is the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web.
The first part of the URL is called a protocol identifier, and it indicates what protocol to use, and the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a colon and two forward slashes.
For example, the two URLs below point to two different files at the domain pcwebopedia.com. The first specifies an executable file that should be fetched using the FTP protocol; the second specifies a Web page that should be fetched using the HTTP protocol:
Also called a hyperlink trick, an obfuscated URL is a type of attack where the real URL that a user is directed to is obfuscated – or concealed – to encourage the user to click-through to the spoof Web site. For example, the attacker may use a cleverly misspelled domain name (e.g. PayPals.com instead of PayPal.com), or hide the actual URL in friendly text, such as “click here to verify your account now”. Obfuscated URLs are commonly used in phishing attacks and other spam e-mails.
The OpenURL standard is a syntax to create Web-transportable packages of metadata and identifiers about an information object. OpenURL provides a mechanism for encoding a citation for an information resource, typically a bibliographic resource, as a URL. The OpenURL is, in effect, an actionable URL that transports metadata, or keys to access metadata, for the object for which the OpenURL is provided. The target of the OpenURL is an OpenURL resolver that offers context-sensitive services based on that metadata. The OpenURL resolver is sometimes referred to as the user’s Institutional Service Component (ISC). [* Source: A Simple OpenURL Resolver]
A URL that results from the search of a database-driven Web site or the URL of a Web site that runs a script. In contrast to static URLs, in which the contents of the Web page do not change unless the changes are coded into the HTML, dynamic URLs are generated from specific queries to a site’s database. The page is merely a template to display the results of the query. Most of the content comes from the database that is associated with the site. Instead of changing information in the HTML code, the data is changed in the database.
Dynamic URLs often contain the following characters: ?, &, %, +, =, $, cgi-bin, .cgi. A dynamic URL is the address of a dynamic Web page.
What is web 2.0?
Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information online. Web 2.0 refers to the transition from static HTML Web pages to a more dynamic Web that is more organized and is based on serving Web applications to users.
Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open communication with an emphasis on Web-based communities of users and more open sharing of information. Over time Web 2.0 has been used more as a marketing term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, and The Web services are all seen as components of Web 2.0.
Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are similar, they do not share precisely the same meaning.